Mõisapark

Ehitamise aeg: 
1738

Palmse mõisa park on üks esinduslikumaid parke Eestis.

Peahoone lähemas ümbruses on taastatud regulaarpark. Parterid kahel pool härrastemaja taasrajati 2009. Maantee poolt piirab ning mõisa eesõue ümbritseb alusmüüri ja kivipostidega kõrge aed, väravaid ehivad graniidist obeliskid (1839). Ringteega ümbritsetud muruväljak peahoone ees on ääristatud puudega, taga on park koos tiikide süsteemiga, mis kaugemal läheb üle looduslikuks metsapargiks. Hoonetevahelisi alasid liigendavad madalad paemüürid, mida läbivad kaarväravad. Paekivirinnatisega tiigi ääres on klassitsistlikus stiilis paviljonid, suvemajad ja paadisild ning pügatud pärnade rida. Allikate kohal on väikesed paviljonid. Puuviljaaed on ümbritsetud paekivimüüriga, taastatud on kasvuhooned ja palmimaja. Vabakujunduslikus parkmetsas on säilinud üle 10 km pargiteid 19. sajandil rajatud teedevõrgust, taastatud on valged puitsillad (Sepasild, Suursild, Kivitamme sild) ja maastikult avanevad kaunid vaated veepeeglitele. Oruveski järve järsul kõrgel kaldal asub balustraadi ja sammastega klassitsistlik paviljon – Brest (ehitatud u 1870–71). Parkmets muutub mõisast eemaldudes järjest looduslikumaks metsaks.
Vabaõhulava juures tiigi lähedal on maareformi 10. aastapäeva mälestuskivi (1933).

Palmse pargis on rühm rabakivirahne – 13 suuremat ja hulk väiksemaid, mis võeti looduskaitse alla juba 1937. aastal. Rahvapärimuse järgi olevat Kloostrikivid nunnasid kohtamisele ootavad kuradid, kes pikast ootamisest kivideks muutunud

Rajatise ajalugu: 

Palmse park was first created as a French formal garden or baroque garden. The work on the outstanding garden in between the previously built ponds and manor house started in 1738. The park had terraces, parterres or even lawns decorated with flower patterns, labyrinths made of pruned hedges, groups of pruned trees and bushes, and trees bordering different elements of the park. The regular orchard was in a separate location. An extensive reshaping of the park took place in in between 1818 and 1840 when the regulated park was changed into a free-form park and a large English style landscape park or deer park was added. The topography of the natural forest – river valleys, the Oruveski Reservoir along with islands – was incorporated into the park. Roads, rapids, cascades, and bridges were constructed, numerous pavilions – some looking like ancient temples, others like wooden huts – were built, and new landscape vistas were cleared. By the road leading to Brest pavilion, there was a grotto opening towards the reservoir. In the second half of the 19th century, the northern sandy area with its gulches was made into forest park. Palmse park was designed by von Pahlens themselves. In the end of the 19th century, M. Weidemann was the manor’s gardener, but he was also helped by three garden boys. For the summer period, six maids from near Lake Peipus were hired to maintain the long meandering gravel paths. The manor’s avenues were planted in the 18th century. The alleys that branch off crosswise lead towards Viitna and Ilumäe, and the ones on the manor house’s central axis lead towards the landscape. The mixed alleys consist of lime trees, oaks, maples, and ashes. In 1840, common limes were planted where the alleys fork. In the second half of the 19th century, a maple-elm alley – the longest (6 km) in Estonia – was built by the Palmse-Ilumäe road, and a maple alley was built from the fork till the chapel yard. In 2009, historical documents were consulted to restore the manorside two-terraced park area, complete with parterres and hedges.

The park has average biodiversity, and has 61 taxa of trees and bushes, out of which 38 are alien (2005). Deciduous trees – lime trees, maples, ashes, oaks, and horse-chestnuts – are prevalent near the buildings. Ancient huge lime trees and oaks over 27 m high grow by the manor house. The common limes growing by the border of the front yard are noteworthy, for they are 18 m high and their maximum circumference is 444 cm. New large-leaved lime trees were planted in the back yard. The forest park is dominated by old pines and firs, but also maples, limes, aspens, ashes, birches, and elms. There are only a few alien species, out of which the Swiss pine and the European larch. Grey alders and common alders grow by waterbodies. Lilacs, ninebarks, false spiraeas, guelder roses, fly honeysuckles, Tartarian honeysuckles, common snowberries, red elderberries, Siberian peashrubs, etc. The alley mainly consists of maples, but ashes and oaks have also been used. Common limes (max circumference of 455 cm) and small-leaved limes are the thickest trees. Of fruit bearing trees, old varieties of apples and pears, but also purple crab apples have been planted

The following protected species can be found in the park: lichens –Nephroma parile, Lobaria pulmonaria, Sclerophora pallida, Arthonia byssacea, and Evernia divaricata;liverworts: Neckera pennata; plants – Diphasiastrum complanatum, Lycopodium clavatum, Dactylorhiza maculata, Pulsatilla pratensis, Dianthus arenarius; elavad bats – Pipistrellus nathusii, Eptesicus nilssonii, Myotis daubentonii, Myotis dasycneme, Myotis brandtii, Myotis nattereri, Nyctalus noctula, Plecotus auritus; kahepaikne amphibians – Rana temporaria; and birds – Accipiter gentilis, Tetrao urogallus, Tetrastes bonasia, Dryocopus martius, Picoides tridactylus, Dendrocopos leucotos, and Dendrocopos minor. The following plants have naturalized in Palmse park: Naturaliseerunud on common butterbur (Petasites hybridus), common daisy (Bellis perennis), and common snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis).